Do NOT print...unless you are at home. You MAY take a picture of the this page with your camera. I recommend that you simply study this page with the answers from the Internet. Or, even better, write it out and you will learn it for sure.
This page is SUBJECT to change at any time and is currently being updated (May 2016). It is only a point of reference and a starting point. The Exam is comprehensive with material from all year. Anything on a previous focus, quiz, or discussed in class is fair game.
Not all material is review. Some material is NEW, or may have only appeared on the focus in print and not discussed verbally in any one class! Read carefully each of the below as there are a few NEW questions...mostly some questions that were covered in one class period, but not another. You may have been expected to follow a link for a vocabulary word to learn about that word, etc.
Edited May 22, 2016 - Text highlighted in YELLOW may have changed since you first reviewed this page.
Final "Review" Sheet
1. Keyboard commands:
a. Bold Ctrl + B
b. Undo Ctrl + Z
c. Select All Ctrl + A
d. Center Justify Ctrl + E
e. Left Justify Ctrl + L
f. Cancel Esc
g. Select word 2x click
h. Select ¶ 3x click
i. Save Ctrl + S
2. What key on a Windows based PC is equivalent to a Mac command? Control = Command
3. In order to “affect” text with formatting commands, what must you do first? Select it
4. Why are page margins set to be the same all the way around a document when doing the focus or a poster? Unlike a business letter or class report, the sides need to be equal in designing posters, greeting and business cards, etc.
5. Why does the size of the margin vary? Different printers will have a different minimum size that they will not to, some printers are borderless and will print to the edge by spraying over the edge of the paper
6. What is the difference between a hard return (HR) and a soft-return? HR is when you hit the return key creating a new paragraph, SR is when you hit the end of the line, and the computer word wraps to the next line. The computer does the SR automatically. You have to actually hit the HR.
6b. What is the difference between the MAIN enter key nd the NUMERIC enter key? In some programs, like Photoshop and MS Excel, the keys ARE different. in Photoshop, the Main Enter is a return, while the Numeric Enter is OK (as in accept changes and terminate modification mode or text entry.)s
7. What is the purpose of doing a “Save As” on an existing, previously saved document? To create a second version, retaining the original for later use or backup. This is FREQUENTLY missed. Save AS should only be used IF you want two files. Example. You open an image, make some changes, then SAVE. You have modified the original. VERSUS...you make the changes, then SAVE AS, change the name by placing an 'e' at the end of the file name to designate "edited' and you will now have TWO versions.
8. What is the difference between changing the name of a file from the desktop vs. changing the name in a “Save As” dialog box? Changing name at the desktop simply changes the name of that one file, “Save As” results in a new file.
9. What happens if you hold down the shift (pc) or option (mac) key while you drag a file to a new folder? Creates a copy
10. When you insert a picture (MS Word, Google Docs and even emails), why might you need to change how the image is orientated or placed. In MS Word, you would Set Format/Layout to “Square” or “Behind Text”. In Google Docs, you click the graphic and change from Inline to Wrap. Otherwise it will be an in-line graphic and “stuck” with in the text.
11. What does it mean to keep an item “Proportional”? As you change one measurement, the other measurement changes the same % amount. This is usually accomplished by clicking ONLY the corners (Google Docs), or by holding down a modifier key while resizing (Shift in Photoshop). Frequently missed. Think IMAGE resizing. When you resize a picture, you want to keep it proportional, so you don't get thinner or thicker than real life.
12. What happens if you click to the far left of the line? it will highlight the whole line
13. Why do you need to proof your work as WELL AS look for spell check and grammar errors? Checker will not catch wrong word usage, etc.
15. How can you cycle through open programs that are open and listed in the Start Bar? Alt + Tab. Alt + Shift + Tab cycles you BACK (Mac is Cmd + Tab. Inside Photoshop, you can use Shift + Tab to cycle open files)
16. When you are editing a photo, why do you want to “save as” with a slightly different name? preserve the original
17. Why do you want to generally ONLY “Save As” after you are completely finished? to avoid JPEG generational compression loss.
18. When you are in a numbered outline, and have hit return, how do you get a sub point? Tab
19. How do you go back up a level in outline form? Shift + tab
20. How do you change the font size with the keyboard? Ctrl + Shift + < or > Frequently missed. Try this now and commit it to memory as many programs use this same keyboard sequence and is an invaluable shortcut to remember.
21. What key acts as a “Nudge Key” when an item is selected? Arrow key
22. How do you do a one (1) pixel nudge? Shift or option (depending on the program) + Arrow Key
23. What key “constrains” the rotation to “fixed angular increments (like 90 degrees)? shift. With out the shift key, objects can be freely rotated. When you hold the shift, it locks the rotation to specific steps.
24. What is the difference between the two ‘Delete’ keys? Main keyboard section key is a backspace or backward delete. Numeric keypad section is a forward delete. So, if you press backspace, the character to the left of the cursor will be deleted. If you press Delete, the character to the right of the cursor will be deleted. Not that some keyboards PUT backspace on the key. So just call both Delete.
25. What is the “Clipboard”? stores information that has been copied via copy or cut command, to be pasted into a different place
26. What is the difference between cut and copy? Copy leaves info in original place and places info on the clipboard, cut removes it from the original location and places it on the clipboard. Once on the clipboard, you can paste in the info to where ever you are.
27. In Photoshop, what do you create to act as the background? A new layer (or duplicate main art)
28. In Photoshop, what tool can you use to select a portion of the image? Lasso. Magic Wand. Quick Selection. Quick Mask.
28 b. What modifiers can you use to add and/or subtract from the selection? Shift (add) or option (subtract)
29. In Photoshop, what keyboard hotkey allows you to move around temporarily while using another tool? Hand tool via the spacebar Frequently Missed
30. What are the margins for the Focus? 0.25". This allows maximum content per page. If you are doing a paper for English, or a report for science, you will have to follow specific guidelines. But, if you are just taking notes, and want as much as possible on a page, small margins allow for more text per page.
31. What is the keyboard command to “Repeat” the last command? Ctrl + Y
32. What design rule applies when designing different parts of a project, like a poster, or presentation? levels of information (varied by text size)
33. How do you change the layering of objects? Arrange (MS Word/Google Docs). Layer order (Photoshop)
34. What is the best way to move items that need to stay together? Shift select, then group (Shift will select all that are next to each other. Use Ctrl to select items that are not next to each other)
35. What are the times to crop an image? In the camera while shooting, editing in camera before transferring or on the computer after transfer, While printing in the online or store kiosk, When Matting or Framing.
35 b. When is the best time to crop an image? Generally, you should get it right in the camera, to shoot a variety of crops in the camera to allow for post-production selection.
36. What is the difference between a .jpg and a .psd? Both are images. .psd can only be opened by Photoshop. File must be saved as a .jpg for other programs to use, like internet posting.
37. When printing, to change paper type or reduce ink/toner usage, orientation what do you do? Change printer options in the print dialog box.
38. What is the volume size of a CD? 700 MB.
38b. Single Layer DVD? 4.7 GB
39. What is the significance of the server? Allows a large volume (our NAS is a 2 TB Drive) to provide documents to many users regardless of station login. This is where you access Public Images, and transferred Data for grading/printing.
40. What is a Storyboard or Shot List useful for? Rough draft for a multipage project, like a movie or presentation.
41. In a presentation, what is a transition? The effect used to move from one slide to the next.
42. In a presentation, what is an animation? The effects used on each object on a slide. AVOID animations as a general rule. The slow down the presentation and frequently do not work on older versions resulting in backward compatibility issues.. Frequently missed. Technically, Prezi doesn't allow animating graphics, but you COULD bring in an animation. So, this question is a little confusing, but still important to know. If you using PowerPoint, more control is allowed to literally take an arrow and ANIMATE IT so that it moves across the screen. The key to keep in mind for the test is ANIMATION is on ONE slide. TRANSITION are between slides.
43. Why would printing a presentation as a handout useful? Allows for more than one slide per sheet of paper. Audience can take notes to the side of the slide that is being presented.
44. What keys are useful with a presentation? Esc to drop out, arrow keys go forward/backward, Spacebar to present, etc. See : https://prezi.com/support/article/creating/keyboard-shortcuts/ Please note: Prezi Shortcuts are turned off by default. Click the cog wheel in the upper right corner of the Prezi Editor and select On to enable them. [Powerpoint specific: F5 starts a presentation from the beginning. Shift + F5 starts from the current selected slide.]
45. Powerpoint only - not on test - What are the “Add Notes” section under a slide for? Speaker notes…the comments to make between and about the slides.
46. When would Present set to “AutoPlay” be helpful? In AutoPlay (aka Kiosk), self-running mode, you can set the duration of each slide to a specific interval.
47. What is the essence of photography? You are writing with light. A picture is worth a 1000 words…and a lot can be told.
48. What is the fundamental basis of photography? Using a box with a hole in it (camera obscura) with a light sensitive material (film or CCD) to react to the light to form an image.
49. What photographic compositional techniques have you learned? Rule of thirds, center of interest, leading lines, framing, fill the frame, etc.
50. What is the significance of the aperture vs. the shutter speed in regards to the exposure? Aperture controls how much light and affects depth of field, shutter speeds controls how long the light exposes and affects the stoppage and/or blurring of motion.
51. What considerations are necessary in dealing with rechargeable batteries? They die quick and they don’t like to be charged when they are not dead, but they don’t like to be run completely down either. So, use them until they run down and have a spare ready to go.
52. How can you capture action and emotion with a camera? Anticipate the action and shoot lots of pictures.
53. What is the significance between the gauges of wires? Gauge refers to the thickness of the wire. Low number are thick and can support heavy duty equipment. However, length is still a factor. Like, a short 14 gauge extension cord could be used to run an air conditioner. The bottom line is that if a piece of equipment pulls a lot of amperage, it is going to heat up the cord and thinner cords could catch on fire.
54. Keyboard shortcut to get to your computer resources like the Picture Folder, Shared Volumes, etc.? Windows Key + E
55. Why is the cap locks key disable? Generally should NOT type in all caps, except very short amounts, like a title, or a WORD in a sentence. Especially on a laptop, or other low travel keyboards (like a Mac desktop) the key gets turned on by accident more often than not. Bottom line, shift key should be used.
56. How do you start a slide show? In Prezi, pres Spacebar. Then press 0 to go full screen. Press esc to drop out of the Prezi. [In Prezi, keyboard shortcut is off by default. Please note that in Powerpoint F5 starts a slide show from the 1st slide. Shift + F5 starts a slide show from the current (selected) slide. Since PowerPoint is still the DOMINATE for of presentations, it is good to know this most useful keyboard command. ]
57. When taking a picture, what will mess up the camera's meter? Any bright or dark part of the picture that is different than the main subject. So, if you somebody is standing in front of a backlit scene, they will turn in to a silhouette.
58. What is the impact of photography? Photography affects all of us in many ways. It shapes opinions, records facts, communicates stories, etc.
Photo 2+ Specific Review Questions -
25 Questions will come from the above Photo and Photoshop review. Be familiar with the following concepts for an additional 25 questions.
What are the exposure stops for Shutter Speed and Aperture?
What is the sunny f16 rule?
What is the concept of Equivalent Exposures vs. Exposure Compensation?
Exposure Scenarios: Give a base exposure, know how to determine the proper exposure after adjusting for Shutter Speed Priority over Aperture Priority.
What are some challenges with Flash?
What is red eye and how do you get rid of it?
What is the reason and method to use slow flash sync?
What is the impact of higher ISO on Flash?
What does fill flash outdoors in the sun rely and how do you set it up?
What setting on the camera determines the effective flash distance?
What is the concept of the extended moment?
What is a key aspect of video editing?
What is a rack focus effect?
What is time code?
What is continuity?
What is a voice over?
What the difference between tracking and trucking?
When is a mosaic used?
When is the Fade Out transition useful?
What is the difference in various cables?
What is the difference in various mics?
Computer, Keyboard shortcut, etc
show panel to expanded view
advance one frame on timeline
Transport keyboard controls to play ff, rewind, stop, and fast ff or rw
How does the Henri Cartier-Bresson's concept of the decisive moment, and the concept of the Extended Moment correlate to live as a photographer (recreational shooting family or commercial shooting events)?